Hyponatremia – causes, symptoms, and treatment

Hyponatremia is an electrolyte disorder where there is an imbalance in the level of sodium and water in the bloodstream. The term hyponatremia translates to low salt in the blood and refers to both low sodium (hypo- = below normal, -natrēmia = normal sodium) and low osmolality (osmosis = presence of ions and solutes within a solution).

Although most cases are mild and resolve with no long-term health problems, severe cases may lead to life-threatening brain swelling or stroke if not treated properly.

An Overview

A person suffering from hyponatremia experiences low levels of sodium in the blood. Hyponatremia is caused by drinking too much water without taking in enough salt or other electrolytes. It is a relatively rare condition that usually only affects endurance athletes who exercise for long periods of periods.

Other factors can also increase your risk of developing hyponatremia including diarrhea, vomiting, fever, and congestive heart failure. The most common symptom of this condition is fatigue but it can also lead to confusion, disorientation, and seizures if left untreated. A hyponatremia test will be used to determine whether you have this disorder or not.

Symptoms of Hyponatremia

The most common symptoms of hyponatremia are headache, nausea/vomiting, fatigue, disorientation, confusion/poor memory. Other symptoms include muscle cramps and spasms or seizures.

The most common cause of hyponatremia is drinking too much water. It can also be caused by several other factors including overuse of diuretics (water pills), and medications that lead to more frequent urination such as antibiotics or antidepressants.

Hypothyroidism can also cause hyponatremia when the thyroid gland doesn’t produce enough hormones to help regulate electrolyte levels in the body. Other rarer causes include brain tumors or head trauma with swelling in the brain. You can book your hyponatremia test from any lab like dr essa laboratory, Chugtai lab, or any other.

When to see a doctor

If you have any of the following symptoms: headache, confusion, vomiting, or diarrhea that lasts more than 24 hours, stomach cramps, or pain that gets worse when you are active.

  1. You are experiencing any of these symptoms for the first time in your life.
  2. You experience these same symptoms three times in a row without getting better after two days.
  3. You feel better after taking fluids but then get sick again within 12 hours or less.

It is important to see a doctor if you experience any of these signs so they can diagnose and treat your condition with a hyponatremia test.

Causes of hyponatremia

The most common cause of hyponatremia is drinking too much water. Drinking too much water dilutes the sodium in the body and can lead to a condition known as hyponatremia. Hyponatremia is a dangerous condition that must be treated quickly.

Other possible causes of hyponatremia include vomiting or diarrhea, which both lead to significant loss of fluids from the body; as well as extreme physical exertion, which can also cause dehydration. In some cases, patients who have been taking psychiatric medications that inhibit urination may produce so much urine that they are at risk for developing hyponatremia. The condition can also be caused by certain medical conditions such as congestive heart failure, cirrhosis of the liver, or kidney disease.

Hyponatremia refers to low sodium levels in the blood, which happens when your body loses too much salt and water. This can be caused by drinking too much water or other fluids while you exercise, which dilutes the amount of sodium in your blood plasma and brings on hyponatremia symptoms like nausea, fatigue, and even seizures.

Hyponatremia can be very dangerous if not treated immediately, so it’s important to understand its causes to avoid its dangerous effects.

Risk factors

Risk factors for hyponatremia can include an increase in sodium or water consumption without also increasing salt intake. Other risk factors include congestive heart failure, cirrhosis, chronic kidney disease, and obesity. A hyponatremia test may be needed to rule out other possible causes of dizziness.


The most serious complication of hyponatremia is the development of a syndrome known as water intoxication or dilutional hyponatremia. This syndrome is associated with an increase in intracranial pressure (ICP) and may lead to coma. The severity of complications depends on the degree to which sodium levels are below normal.

Milder degrees are associated with nonspecific neurological symptoms such as headache, nausea, vomiting, fatigue, muscle weakness or spasms, and seizures. Severe cases can result in a complete inability to care for oneself and even death from swelling in the brain.

Diagnosis and Treatment

It is common to become dehydrated while playing sports or exercising. Dehydration may lead to hyponatremia. To diagnose this condition, your doctor will ask you about your medical history and do a physical exam. If they suspect that you have hyponatremia they may order a blood test or urine test to determine the level of sodium in your body. Treatment for hyponatremia involves drinking enough fluids until the levels return to normal, which usually takes three days. You can buy medicine from the best online pharmacy in Pakistan or any other


Hyponatremia, also known as low sodium or water intoxication, is a condition in which the sodium levels in the blood are below 135 millimoles per liter (mmol/L) and symptoms may include nausea, vomiting, and headaches. Typically caused by overconsumption of liquids – especially water or sports drinks – it can be serious if left untreated and requires medical attention.


Mediclaim Policy

Important Points To Remember Before Choosing Mediclaim Policy

A Mediclaim policy is an insurance plan bought by people to cover their medical expenses prudently. Policies from companies like Aditya Birla health insurance have many advantages, but choosing one is difficult because they vary in terms of how much coverage they provide. Additionally, some companies have miscellaneous provisions that can make you ineligible for payments unless you know […]

Uric Acid Levels

7 Effective Ways to Lower Your Uric Acid Levels Naturally

Uric acid, also called urate, is an organic compound that’s formed as a byproduct when purines break down in the body. It’s found in relatively high concentrations in blood, and it’s one of the primary components of urine. Uric acid has several important functions in the body, including providing nutrients for the growth and repair […]